pcm_lib.c 69.1 KB
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// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-or-later
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/*
 *  Digital Audio (PCM) abstract layer
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 *  Copyright (c) by Jaroslav Kysela <perex@perex.cz>
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 *                   Abramo Bagnara <abramo@alsa-project.org>
 */

#include <linux/slab.h>
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#include <linux/sched/signal.h>
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#include <linux/time.h>
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#include <linux/math64.h>
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#include <linux/export.h>
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#include <sound/core.h>
#include <sound/control.h>
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#include <sound/tlv.h>
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#include <sound/info.h>
#include <sound/pcm.h>
#include <sound/pcm_params.h>
#include <sound/timer.h>

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#include "pcm_local.h"

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#ifdef CONFIG_SND_PCM_XRUN_DEBUG
#define CREATE_TRACE_POINTS
#include "pcm_trace.h"
#else
#define trace_hwptr(substream, pos, in_interrupt)
#define trace_xrun(substream)
#define trace_hw_ptr_error(substream, reason)
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#define trace_applptr(substream, prev, curr)
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#endif

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static int fill_silence_frames(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
			       snd_pcm_uframes_t off, snd_pcm_uframes_t frames);

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/*
 * fill ring buffer with silence
 * runtime->silence_start: starting pointer to silence area
 * runtime->silence_filled: size filled with silence
 * runtime->silence_threshold: threshold from application
 * runtime->silence_size: maximal size from application
 *
 * when runtime->silence_size >= runtime->boundary - fill processed area with silence immediately
 */
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void snd_pcm_playback_silence(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream, snd_pcm_uframes_t new_hw_ptr)
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{
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	struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
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	snd_pcm_uframes_t frames, ofs, transfer;
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	int err;
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	if (runtime->silence_size < runtime->boundary) {
		snd_pcm_sframes_t noise_dist, n;
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		snd_pcm_uframes_t appl_ptr = READ_ONCE(runtime->control->appl_ptr);
		if (runtime->silence_start != appl_ptr) {
			n = appl_ptr - runtime->silence_start;
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			if (n < 0)
				n += runtime->boundary;
			if ((snd_pcm_uframes_t)n < runtime->silence_filled)
				runtime->silence_filled -= n;
			else
				runtime->silence_filled = 0;
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			runtime->silence_start = appl_ptr;
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		}
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		if (runtime->silence_filled >= runtime->buffer_size)
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			return;
		noise_dist = snd_pcm_playback_hw_avail(runtime) + runtime->silence_filled;
		if (noise_dist >= (snd_pcm_sframes_t) runtime->silence_threshold)
			return;
		frames = runtime->silence_threshold - noise_dist;
		if (frames > runtime->silence_size)
			frames = runtime->silence_size;
	} else {
		if (new_hw_ptr == ULONG_MAX) {	/* initialization */
			snd_pcm_sframes_t avail = snd_pcm_playback_hw_avail(runtime);
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			if (avail > runtime->buffer_size)
				avail = runtime->buffer_size;
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			runtime->silence_filled = avail > 0 ? avail : 0;
			runtime->silence_start = (runtime->status->hw_ptr +
						  runtime->silence_filled) %
						 runtime->boundary;
		} else {
			ofs = runtime->status->hw_ptr;
			frames = new_hw_ptr - ofs;
			if ((snd_pcm_sframes_t)frames < 0)
				frames += runtime->boundary;
			runtime->silence_filled -= frames;
			if ((snd_pcm_sframes_t)runtime->silence_filled < 0) {
				runtime->silence_filled = 0;
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				runtime->silence_start = new_hw_ptr;
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			} else {
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				runtime->silence_start = ofs;
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			}
		}
		frames = runtime->buffer_size - runtime->silence_filled;
	}
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	if (snd_BUG_ON(frames > runtime->buffer_size))
		return;
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	if (frames == 0)
		return;
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	ofs = runtime->silence_start % runtime->buffer_size;
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	while (frames > 0) {
		transfer = ofs + frames > runtime->buffer_size ? runtime->buffer_size - ofs : frames;
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		err = fill_silence_frames(substream, ofs, transfer);
		snd_BUG_ON(err < 0);
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		runtime->silence_filled += transfer;
		frames -= transfer;
		ofs = 0;
	}
}

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#ifdef CONFIG_SND_DEBUG
void snd_pcm_debug_name(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
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			   char *name, size_t len)
{
	snprintf(name, len, "pcmC%dD%d%c:%d",
		 substream->pcm->card->number,
		 substream->pcm->device,
		 substream->stream ? 'c' : 'p',
		 substream->number);
}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_pcm_debug_name);
#endif
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#define XRUN_DEBUG_BASIC	(1<<0)
#define XRUN_DEBUG_STACK	(1<<1)	/* dump also stack */
#define XRUN_DEBUG_JIFFIESCHECK	(1<<2)	/* do jiffies check */

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#ifdef CONFIG_SND_PCM_XRUN_DEBUG
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#define xrun_debug(substream, mask) \
			((substream)->pstr->xrun_debug & (mask))
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#else
#define xrun_debug(substream, mask)	0
#endif
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#define dump_stack_on_xrun(substream) do {			\
		if (xrun_debug(substream, XRUN_DEBUG_STACK))	\
			dump_stack();				\
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	} while (0)

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/* call with stream lock held */
void __snd_pcm_xrun(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
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{
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	struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;

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	trace_xrun(substream);
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	if (runtime->tstamp_mode == SNDRV_PCM_TSTAMP_ENABLE) {
		struct timespec64 tstamp;

		snd_pcm_gettime(runtime, &tstamp);
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		runtime->status->tstamp.tv_sec = tstamp.tv_sec;
		runtime->status->tstamp.tv_nsec = tstamp.tv_nsec;
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	}
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	snd_pcm_stop(substream, SNDRV_PCM_STATE_XRUN);
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	if (xrun_debug(substream, XRUN_DEBUG_BASIC)) {
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		char name[16];
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		snd_pcm_debug_name(substream, name, sizeof(name));
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		pcm_warn(substream->pcm, "XRUN: %s\n", name);
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		dump_stack_on_xrun(substream);
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	}
}

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#ifdef CONFIG_SND_PCM_XRUN_DEBUG
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#define hw_ptr_error(substream, in_interrupt, reason, fmt, args...)	\
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	do {								\
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		trace_hw_ptr_error(substream, reason);	\
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		if (xrun_debug(substream, XRUN_DEBUG_BASIC)) {		\
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			pr_err_ratelimited("ALSA: PCM: [%c] " reason ": " fmt, \
					   (in_interrupt) ? 'Q' : 'P', ##args);	\
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			dump_stack_on_xrun(substream);			\
		}							\
	} while (0)

#else /* ! CONFIG_SND_PCM_XRUN_DEBUG */

#define hw_ptr_error(substream, fmt, args...) do { } while (0)

#endif

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int snd_pcm_update_state(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
			 struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime)
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{
	snd_pcm_uframes_t avail;

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	avail = snd_pcm_avail(substream);
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	if (avail > runtime->avail_max)
		runtime->avail_max = avail;
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	if (runtime->status->state == SNDRV_PCM_STATE_DRAINING) {
		if (avail >= runtime->buffer_size) {
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			snd_pcm_drain_done(substream);
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			return -EPIPE;
		}
	} else {
		if (avail >= runtime->stop_threshold) {
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			__snd_pcm_xrun(substream);
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			return -EPIPE;
		}
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	}
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	if (runtime->twake) {
		if (avail >= runtime->twake)
			wake_up(&runtime->tsleep);
	} else if (avail >= runtime->control->avail_min)
		wake_up(&runtime->sleep);
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	return 0;
}

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static void update_audio_tstamp(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
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				struct timespec64 *curr_tstamp,
				struct timespec64 *audio_tstamp)
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{
	struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
	u64 audio_frames, audio_nsecs;
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	struct timespec64 driver_tstamp;
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	if (runtime->tstamp_mode != SNDRV_PCM_TSTAMP_ENABLE)
		return;

	if (!(substream->ops->get_time_info) ||
		(runtime->audio_tstamp_report.actual_type ==
			SNDRV_PCM_AUDIO_TSTAMP_TYPE_DEFAULT)) {

		/*
		 * provide audio timestamp derived from pointer position
		 * add delay only if requested
		 */

		audio_frames = runtime->hw_ptr_wrap + runtime->status->hw_ptr;

		if (runtime->audio_tstamp_config.report_delay) {
			if (substream->stream == SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK)
				audio_frames -=  runtime->delay;
			else
				audio_frames +=  runtime->delay;
		}
		audio_nsecs = div_u64(audio_frames * 1000000000LL,
				runtime->rate);
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		*audio_tstamp = ns_to_timespec64(audio_nsecs);
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	}
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	if (runtime->status->audio_tstamp.tv_sec != audio_tstamp->tv_sec ||
	    runtime->status->audio_tstamp.tv_nsec != audio_tstamp->tv_nsec) {
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		runtime->status->audio_tstamp.tv_sec = audio_tstamp->tv_sec;
		runtime->status->audio_tstamp.tv_nsec = audio_tstamp->tv_nsec;
		runtime->status->tstamp.tv_sec = curr_tstamp->tv_sec;
		runtime->status->tstamp.tv_nsec = curr_tstamp->tv_nsec;
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	}
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	/*
	 * re-take a driver timestamp to let apps detect if the reference tstamp
	 * read by low-level hardware was provided with a delay
	 */
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	snd_pcm_gettime(substream->runtime, &driver_tstamp);
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	runtime->driver_tstamp = driver_tstamp;
}

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static int snd_pcm_update_hw_ptr0(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
				  unsigned int in_interrupt)
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{
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	struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
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	snd_pcm_uframes_t pos;
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	snd_pcm_uframes_t old_hw_ptr, new_hw_ptr, hw_base;
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	snd_pcm_sframes_t hdelta, delta;
	unsigned long jdelta;
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	unsigned long curr_jiffies;
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	struct timespec64 curr_tstamp;
	struct timespec64 audio_tstamp;
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	int crossed_boundary = 0;
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	old_hw_ptr = runtime->status->hw_ptr;
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	/*
	 * group pointer, time and jiffies reads to allow for more
	 * accurate correlations/corrections.
	 * The values are stored at the end of this routine after
	 * corrections for hw_ptr position
	 */
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	pos = substream->ops->pointer(substream);
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	curr_jiffies = jiffies;
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	if (runtime->tstamp_mode == SNDRV_PCM_TSTAMP_ENABLE) {
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		if ((substream->ops->get_time_info) &&
			(runtime->audio_tstamp_config.type_requested != SNDRV_PCM_AUDIO_TSTAMP_TYPE_DEFAULT)) {
			substream->ops->get_time_info(substream, &curr_tstamp,
						&audio_tstamp,
						&runtime->audio_tstamp_config,
						&runtime->audio_tstamp_report);

			/* re-test in case tstamp type is not supported in hardware and was demoted to DEFAULT */
			if (runtime->audio_tstamp_report.actual_type == SNDRV_PCM_AUDIO_TSTAMP_TYPE_DEFAULT)
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				snd_pcm_gettime(runtime, &curr_tstamp);
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		} else
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			snd_pcm_gettime(runtime, &curr_tstamp);
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	}

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	if (pos == SNDRV_PCM_POS_XRUN) {
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		__snd_pcm_xrun(substream);
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		return -EPIPE;
	}
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	if (pos >= runtime->buffer_size) {
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		if (printk_ratelimit()) {
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			char name[16];
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			snd_pcm_debug_name(substream, name, sizeof(name));
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			pcm_err(substream->pcm,
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				"invalid position: %s, pos = %ld, buffer size = %ld, period size = %ld\n",
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				name, pos, runtime->buffer_size,
				runtime->period_size);
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		}
		pos = 0;
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	}
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	pos -= pos % runtime->min_align;
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	trace_hwptr(substream, pos, in_interrupt);
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	hw_base = runtime->hw_ptr_base;
	new_hw_ptr = hw_base + pos;
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	if (in_interrupt) {
		/* we know that one period was processed */
		/* delta = "expected next hw_ptr" for in_interrupt != 0 */
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		delta = runtime->hw_ptr_interrupt + runtime->period_size;
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		if (delta > new_hw_ptr) {
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			/* check for double acknowledged interrupts */
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			hdelta = curr_jiffies - runtime->hw_ptr_jiffies;
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			if (hdelta > runtime->hw_ptr_buffer_jiffies/2 + 1) {
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				hw_base += runtime->buffer_size;
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				if (hw_base >= runtime->boundary) {
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					hw_base = 0;
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					crossed_boundary++;
				}
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				new_hw_ptr = hw_base + pos;
				goto __delta;
			}
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		}
	}
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	/* new_hw_ptr might be lower than old_hw_ptr in case when */
	/* pointer crosses the end of the ring buffer */
	if (new_hw_ptr < old_hw_ptr) {
		hw_base += runtime->buffer_size;
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		if (hw_base >= runtime->boundary) {
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			hw_base = 0;
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			crossed_boundary++;
		}
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		new_hw_ptr = hw_base + pos;
	}
      __delta:
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	delta = new_hw_ptr - old_hw_ptr;
	if (delta < 0)
		delta += runtime->boundary;
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	if (runtime->no_period_wakeup) {
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		snd_pcm_sframes_t xrun_threshold;
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		/*
		 * Without regular period interrupts, we have to check
		 * the elapsed time to detect xruns.
		 */
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		jdelta = curr_jiffies - runtime->hw_ptr_jiffies;
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		if (jdelta < runtime->hw_ptr_buffer_jiffies / 2)
			goto no_delta_check;
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		hdelta = jdelta - delta * HZ / runtime->rate;
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		xrun_threshold = runtime->hw_ptr_buffer_jiffies / 2 + 1;
		while (hdelta > xrun_threshold) {
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			delta += runtime->buffer_size;
			hw_base += runtime->buffer_size;
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			if (hw_base >= runtime->boundary) {
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				hw_base = 0;
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				crossed_boundary++;
			}
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			new_hw_ptr = hw_base + pos;
			hdelta -= runtime->hw_ptr_buffer_jiffies;
		}
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		goto no_delta_check;
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	}
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	/* something must be really wrong */
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	if (delta >= runtime->buffer_size + runtime->period_size) {
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		hw_ptr_error(substream, in_interrupt, "Unexpected hw_ptr",
			     "(stream=%i, pos=%ld, new_hw_ptr=%ld, old_hw_ptr=%ld)\n",
			     substream->stream, (long)pos,
			     (long)new_hw_ptr, (long)old_hw_ptr);
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		return 0;
	}
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	/* Do jiffies check only in xrun_debug mode */
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	if (!xrun_debug(substream, XRUN_DEBUG_JIFFIESCHECK))
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		goto no_jiffies_check;

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	/* Skip the jiffies check for hardwares with BATCH flag.
	 * Such hardware usually just increases the position at each IRQ,
	 * thus it can't give any strange position.
	 */
	if (runtime->hw.info & SNDRV_PCM_INFO_BATCH)
		goto no_jiffies_check;
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	hdelta = delta;
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	if (hdelta < runtime->delay)
		goto no_jiffies_check;
	hdelta -= runtime->delay;
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	jdelta = curr_jiffies - runtime->hw_ptr_jiffies;
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	if (((hdelta * HZ) / runtime->rate) > jdelta + HZ/100) {
		delta = jdelta /
			(((runtime->period_size * HZ) / runtime->rate)
								+ HZ/100);
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		/* move new_hw_ptr according jiffies not pos variable */
		new_hw_ptr = old_hw_ptr;
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		hw_base = delta;
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		/* use loop to avoid checks for delta overflows */
		/* the delta value is small or zero in most cases */
		while (delta > 0) {
			new_hw_ptr += runtime->period_size;
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			if (new_hw_ptr >= runtime->boundary) {
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				new_hw_ptr -= runtime->boundary;
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				crossed_boundary--;
			}
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			delta--;
		}
		/* align hw_base to buffer_size */
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		hw_ptr_error(substream, in_interrupt, "hw_ptr skipping",
			     "(pos=%ld, delta=%ld, period=%ld, jdelta=%lu/%lu/%lu, hw_ptr=%ld/%ld)\n",
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			     (long)pos, (long)hdelta,
			     (long)runtime->period_size, jdelta,
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			     ((hdelta * HZ) / runtime->rate), hw_base,
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			     (unsigned long)old_hw_ptr,
			     (unsigned long)new_hw_ptr);
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		/* reset values to proper state */
		delta = 0;
		hw_base = new_hw_ptr - (new_hw_ptr % runtime->buffer_size);
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	}
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 no_jiffies_check:
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	if (delta > runtime->period_size + runtime->period_size / 2) {
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		hw_ptr_error(substream, in_interrupt,
			     "Lost interrupts?",
			     "(stream=%i, delta=%ld, new_hw_ptr=%ld, old_hw_ptr=%ld)\n",
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			     substream->stream, (long)delta,
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			     (long)new_hw_ptr,
			     (long)old_hw_ptr);
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	}
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 no_delta_check:
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	if (runtime->status->hw_ptr == new_hw_ptr) {
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		runtime->hw_ptr_jiffies = curr_jiffies;
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		update_audio_tstamp(substream, &curr_tstamp, &audio_tstamp);
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		return 0;
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	}
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	if (substream->stream == SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK &&
	    runtime->silence_size > 0)
		snd_pcm_playback_silence(substream, new_hw_ptr);

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	if (in_interrupt) {
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		delta = new_hw_ptr - runtime->hw_ptr_interrupt;
		if (delta < 0)
			delta += runtime->boundary;
		delta -= (snd_pcm_uframes_t)delta % runtime->period_size;
		runtime->hw_ptr_interrupt += delta;
		if (runtime->hw_ptr_interrupt >= runtime->boundary)
			runtime->hw_ptr_interrupt -= runtime->boundary;
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	}
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	runtime->hw_ptr_base = hw_base;
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	runtime->status->hw_ptr = new_hw_ptr;
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	runtime->hw_ptr_jiffies = curr_jiffies;
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	if (crossed_boundary) {
		snd_BUG_ON(crossed_boundary != 1);
		runtime->hw_ptr_wrap += runtime->boundary;
	}
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	update_audio_tstamp(substream, &curr_tstamp, &audio_tstamp);
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	return snd_pcm_update_state(substream, runtime);
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}

/* CAUTION: call it with irq disabled */
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int snd_pcm_update_hw_ptr(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
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{
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	return snd_pcm_update_hw_ptr0(substream, 0);
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}

/**
 * snd_pcm_set_ops - set the PCM operators
 * @pcm: the pcm instance
 * @direction: stream direction, SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_XXX
 * @ops: the operator table
 *
 * Sets the given PCM operators to the pcm instance.
 */
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void snd_pcm_set_ops(struct snd_pcm *pcm, int direction,
		     const struct snd_pcm_ops *ops)
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{
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	struct snd_pcm_str *stream = &pcm->streams[direction];
	struct snd_pcm_substream *substream;
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	for (substream = stream->substream; substream != NULL; substream = substream->next)
		substream->ops = ops;
}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_pcm_set_ops);
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/**
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 * snd_pcm_set_sync - set the PCM sync id
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 * @substream: the pcm substream
 *
 * Sets the PCM sync identifier for the card.
 */
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void snd_pcm_set_sync(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
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{
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	struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
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	runtime->sync.id32[0] = substream->pcm->card->number;
	runtime->sync.id32[1] = -1;
	runtime->sync.id32[2] = -1;
	runtime->sync.id32[3] = -1;
}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_pcm_set_sync);

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/*
 *  Standard ioctl routine
 */

static inline unsigned int div32(unsigned int a, unsigned int b, 
				 unsigned int *r)
{
	if (b == 0) {
		*r = 0;
		return UINT_MAX;
	}
	*r = a % b;
	return a / b;
}

static inline unsigned int div_down(unsigned int a, unsigned int b)
{
	if (b == 0)
		return UINT_MAX;
	return a / b;
}

static inline unsigned int div_up(unsigned int a, unsigned int b)
{
	unsigned int r;
	unsigned int q;
	if (b == 0)
		return UINT_MAX;
	q = div32(a, b, &r);
	if (r)
		++q;
	return q;
}

static inline unsigned int mul(unsigned int a, unsigned int b)
{
	if (a == 0)
		return 0;
	if (div_down(UINT_MAX, a) < b)
		return UINT_MAX;
	return a * b;
}

static inline unsigned int muldiv32(unsigned int a, unsigned int b,
				    unsigned int c, unsigned int *r)
{
	u_int64_t n = (u_int64_t) a * b;
	if (c == 0) {
		*r = 0;
		return UINT_MAX;
	}
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	n = div_u64_rem(n, c, r);
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	if (n >= UINT_MAX) {
		*r = 0;
		return UINT_MAX;
	}
	return n;
}

/**
 * snd_interval_refine - refine the interval value of configurator
 * @i: the interval value to refine
 * @v: the interval value to refer to
 *
 * Refines the interval value with the reference value.
 * The interval is changed to the range satisfying both intervals.
 * The interval status (min, max, integer, etc.) are evaluated.
 *
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 * Return: Positive if the value is changed, zero if it's not changed, or a
 * negative error code.
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 */
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int snd_interval_refine(struct snd_interval *i, const struct snd_interval *v)
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{
	int changed = 0;
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	if (snd_BUG_ON(snd_interval_empty(i)))
		return -EINVAL;
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	if (i->min < v->min) {
		i->min = v->min;
		i->openmin = v->openmin;
		changed = 1;
	} else if (i->min == v->min && !i->openmin && v->openmin) {
		i->openmin = 1;
		changed = 1;
	}
	if (i->max > v->max) {
		i->max = v->max;
		i->openmax = v->openmax;
		changed = 1;
	} else if (i->max == v->max && !i->openmax && v->openmax) {
		i->openmax = 1;
		changed = 1;
	}
	if (!i->integer && v->integer) {
		i->integer = 1;
		changed = 1;
	}
	if (i->integer) {
		if (i->openmin) {
			i->min++;
			i->openmin = 0;
		}
		if (i->openmax) {
			i->max--;
			i->openmax = 0;
		}
	} else if (!i->openmin && !i->openmax && i->min == i->max)
		i->integer = 1;
	if (snd_interval_checkempty(i)) {
		snd_interval_none(i);
		return -EINVAL;
	}
	return changed;
}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_interval_refine);

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static int snd_interval_refine_first(struct snd_interval *i)
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{
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	const unsigned int last_max = i->max;

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	if (snd_BUG_ON(snd_interval_empty(i)))
		return -EINVAL;
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	if (snd_interval_single(i))
		return 0;
	i->max = i->min;
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	if (i->openmin)
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		i->max++;
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	/* only exclude max value if also excluded before refine */
	i->openmax = (i->openmax && i->max >= last_max);
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	return 1;
}

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static int snd_interval_refine_last(struct snd_interval *i)
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{
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	const unsigned int last_min = i->min;

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	if (snd_BUG_ON(snd_interval_empty(i)))
		return -EINVAL;
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	if (snd_interval_single(i))
		return 0;
	i->min = i->max;
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	if (i->openmax)
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		i->min--;
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	/* only exclude min value if also excluded before refine */
	i->openmin = (i->openmin && i->min <= last_min);
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	return 1;
}

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void snd_interval_mul(const struct snd_interval *a, const struct snd_interval *b, struct snd_interval *c)
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{
	if (a->empty || b->empty) {
		snd_interval_none(c);
		return;
	}
	c->empty = 0;
	c->min = mul(a->min, b->min);
	c->openmin = (a->openmin || b->openmin);
	c->max = mul(a->max,  b->max);
	c->openmax = (a->openmax || b->openmax);
	c->integer = (a->integer && b->integer);
}

/**
 * snd_interval_div - refine the interval value with division
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 * @a: dividend
 * @b: divisor
 * @c: quotient
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 *
 * c = a / b
 *
 * Returns non-zero if the value is changed, zero if not changed.
 */
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void snd_interval_div(const struct snd_interval *a, const struct snd_interval *b, struct snd_interval *c)
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{
	unsigned int r;
	if (a->empty || b->empty) {
		snd_interval_none(c);
		return;
	}
	c->empty = 0;
	c->min = div32(a->min, b->max, &r);
	c->openmin = (r || a->openmin || b->openmax);
	if (b->min > 0) {
		c->max = div32(a->max, b->min, &r);
		if (r) {
			c->max++;
			c->openmax = 1;
		} else
			c->openmax = (a->openmax || b->openmin);
	} else {
		c->max = UINT_MAX;
		c->openmax = 0;
	}
	c->integer = 0;
}

/**
 * snd_interval_muldivk - refine the interval value
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 * @a: dividend 1
 * @b: dividend 2
 * @k: divisor (as integer)
 * @c: result
  *
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 * c = a * b / k
 *
 * Returns non-zero if the value is changed, zero if not changed.
 */
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void snd_interval_muldivk(const struct snd_interval *a, const struct snd_interval *b,
		      unsigned int k, struct snd_interval *c)
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{
	unsigned int r;
	if (a->empty || b->empty) {
		snd_interval_none(c);
		return;
	}
	c->empty = 0;
	c->min = muldiv32(a->min, b->min, k, &r);
	c->openmin = (r || a->openmin || b->openmin);
	c->max = muldiv32(a->max, b->max, k, &r);
	if (r) {
		c->max++;
		c->openmax = 1;
	} else
		c->openmax = (a->openmax || b->openmax);
	c->integer = 0;
}

/**
 * snd_interval_mulkdiv - refine the interval value
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 * @a: dividend 1
 * @k: dividend 2 (as integer)
 * @b: divisor
 * @c: result
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 *
 * c = a * k / b
 *
 * Returns non-zero if the value is changed, zero if not changed.
 */
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void snd_interval_mulkdiv(const struct snd_interval *a, unsigned int k,
		      const struct snd_interval *b, struct snd_interval *c)
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{
	unsigned int r;
	if (a->empty || b->empty) {
		snd_interval_none(c);
		return;
	}
	c->empty = 0;
	c->min = muldiv32(a->min, k, b->max, &r);
	c->openmin = (r || a->openmin || b->openmax);
	if (b->min > 0) {
		c->max = muldiv32(a->max, k, b->min, &r);
		if (r) {
			c->max++;
			c->openmax = 1;
		} else
			c->openmax = (a->openmax || b->openmin);
	} else {
		c->max = UINT_MAX;
		c->openmax = 0;
	}
	c->integer = 0;
}

/* ---- */


/**
 * snd_interval_ratnum - refine the interval value
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 * @i: interval to refine
 * @rats_count: number of ratnum_t 
 * @rats: ratnum_t array
 * @nump: pointer to store the resultant numerator
 * @denp: pointer to store the resultant denominator
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 *
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 * Return: Positive if the value is changed, zero if it's not changed, or a
 * negative error code.
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 */
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int snd_interval_ratnum(struct snd_interval *i,
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			unsigned int rats_count, const struct snd_ratnum *rats,
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			unsigned int *nump, unsigned int *denp)
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{
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	unsigned int best_num, best_den;
	int best_diff;
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	unsigned int k;
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	struct snd_interval t;
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	int err;
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	unsigned int result_num, result_den;
	int result_diff;
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	best_num = best_den = best_diff = 0;
	for (k = 0; k < rats_count; ++k) {
		unsigned int num = rats[k].num;
		unsigned int den;
		unsigned int q = i->min;
		int diff;
		if (q == 0)
			q = 1;
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		den = div_up(num, q);
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		if (den < rats[k].den_min)
			continue;
		if (den > rats[k].den_max)
			den = rats[k].den_max;
		else {
			unsigned int r;
			r = (den - rats[k].den_min) % rats[k].den_step;
			if (r != 0)
				den -= r;
		}
		diff = num - q * den;
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		if (diff < 0)
			diff = -diff;
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		if (best_num == 0 ||
		    diff * best_den < best_diff * den) {
			best_diff = diff;
			best_den = den;
			best_num = num;
		}
	}
	if (best_den == 0) {
		i->empty = 1;
		return -EINVAL;
	}
	t.min = div_down(best_num, best_den);
	t.openmin = !!(best_num % best_den);
	
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	result_num = best_num;
	result_diff = best_diff;
	result_den = best_den;
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	best_num = best_den = best_diff = 0;
	for (k = 0; k < rats_count; ++k) {
		unsigned int num = rats[k].num;
		unsigned int den;
		unsigned int q = i->max;
		int diff;
		if (q == 0) {
			i->empty = 1;
			return -EINVAL;
		}
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		den = div_down(num, q);
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		if (den > rats[k].den_max)
			continue;
		if (den < rats[k].den_min)
			den = rats[k].den_min;
		else {
			unsigned int r;
			r = (den - rats[k].den_min) % rats[k].den_step;
			if (r != 0)
				den += rats[k].den_step - r;
		}
		diff = q * den - num;
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		if (diff < 0)
			diff = -diff;
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		if (best_num == 0 ||
		    diff * best_den < best_diff * den) {
			best_diff = diff;
			best_den = den;
			best_num = num;
		}
	}
	if (best_den == 0) {
		i->empty = 1;
		return -EINVAL;
	}
	t.max = div_up(best_num, best_den);
	t.openmax = !!(best_num % best_den);
	t.integer = 0;
	err = snd_interval_refine(i, &t);
	if (err < 0)
		return err;

	if (snd_interval_single(i)) {
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		if (best_diff * result_den < result_diff * best_den) {
			result_num = best_num;
			result_den = best_den;
		}
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		if (nump)
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			*nump = result_num;
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		if (denp)
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			*denp = result_den;
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	}
	return err;
}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_interval_ratnum);

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/**
 * snd_interval_ratden - refine the interval value
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 * @i: interval to refine
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 * @rats_count: number of struct ratden
 * @rats: struct ratden array
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 * @nump: pointer to store the resultant numerator
 * @denp: pointer to store the resultant denominator
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 *
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 * Return: Positive if the value is changed, zero if it's not changed, or a
 * negative error code.
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 */
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static int snd_interval_ratden(struct snd_interval *i,
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			       unsigned int rats_count,
			       const struct snd_ratden *rats,
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			       unsigned int *nump, unsigned int *denp)
{
	unsigned int best_num, best_diff, best_den;
	unsigned int k;
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	struct snd_interval t;
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	int err;

	best_num = best_den = best_diff = 0;
	for (k = 0; k < rats_count; ++k) {
		unsigned int num;
		unsigned int den = rats[k].den;
		unsigned int q = i->min;
		int diff;
		num = mul(q, den);
		if (num > rats[k].num_max)
			continue;
		if (num < rats[k].num_min)
			num = rats[k].num_max;
		else {
			unsigned int r;
			r = (num - rats[k].num_min) % rats[k].num_step;
			if (r != 0)
				num += rats[k].num_step - r;
		}
		diff = num - q * den;
		if (best_num == 0 ||
		    diff * best_den < best_diff * den) {
			best_diff = diff;
			best_den = den;
			best_num = num;
		}
	}
	if (best_den == 0) {
		i->empty = 1;
		return -EINVAL;
	}
	t.min = div_down(best_num, best_den);
	t.openmin = !!(best_num % best_den);
	
	best_num = best_den = best_diff = 0;
	for (k = 0; k < rats_count; ++k) {
		unsigned int num;
		unsigned int den = rats[k].den;
		unsigned int q = i->max;
		int diff;
		num = mul(q, den);
		if (num < rats[k].num_min)
			continue;
		if (num > rats[k].num_max)
			num = rats[k].num_max;
		else {
			unsigned int r;
			r = (num - rats[k].num_min) % rats[k].num_step;
			if (r != 0)
				num -= r;
		}
		diff = q * den - num;
		if (best_num == 0 ||
		    diff * best_den < best_diff * den) {
			best_diff = diff;
			best_den = den;
			best_num = num;
		}
	}
	if (best_den == 0) {
		i->empty = 1;
		return -EINVAL;
	}
	t.max = div_up(best_num, best_den);
	t.openmax = !!(best_num % best_den);
	t.integer = 0;
	err = snd_interval_refine(i, &t);
	if (err < 0)
		return err;

	if (snd_interval_single(i)) {
		if (nump)
			*nump = best_num;
		if (denp)
			*denp = best_den;
	}
	return err;
}

/**
 * snd_interval_list - refine the interval value from the list
 * @i: the interval value to refine
 * @count: the number of elements in the list
 * @list: the value list
 * @mask: the bit-mask to evaluate
 *
 * Refines the interval value from the list.
 * When mask is non-zero, only the elements corresponding to bit 1 are
 * evaluated.
 *
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 * Return: Positive if the value is changed, zero if it's not changed, or a
 * negative error code.
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 */
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int snd_interval_list(struct snd_interval *i, unsigned int count,
		      const unsigned int *list, unsigned int mask)
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{
        unsigned int k;
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	struct snd_interval list_range;
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	if (!count) {
		i->empty = 1;
		return -EINVAL;
	}
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	snd_interval_any(&list_range);
	list_range.min = UINT_MAX;
	list_range.max = 0;
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        for (k = 0; k < count; k++) {
		if (mask && !(mask & (1 << k)))
			continue;
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		if (!snd_interval_test(i, list[k]))
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			continue;
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		list_range.min = min(list_range.min, list[k]);
		list_range.max = max(list_range.max, list[k]);
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        }
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	return snd_interval_refine(i, &list_range);
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}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_interval_list);

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/**
 * snd_interval_ranges - refine the interval value from the list of ranges
 * @i: the interval value to refine
 * @count: the number of elements in the list of ranges
 * @ranges: the ranges list
 * @mask: the bit-mask to evaluate
 *
 * Refines the interval value from the list of ranges.
 * When mask is non-zero, only the elements corresponding to bit 1 are
 * evaluated.
 *
 * Return: Positive if the value is changed, zero if it's not changed, or a
 * negative error code.
 */
int snd_interval_ranges(struct snd_interval *i, unsigned int count,
			const struct snd_interval *ranges, unsigned int mask)
{
	unsigned int k;
	struct snd_interval range_union;
	struct snd_interval range;

	if (!count) {
		snd_interval_none(i);
		return -EINVAL;
	}
	snd_interval_any(&range_union);
	range_union.min = UINT_MAX;
	range_union.max = 0;
	for (k = 0; k < count; k++) {
		if (mask && !(mask & (1 << k)))
			continue;
		snd_interval_copy(&range, &ranges[k]);
		if (snd_interval_refine(&range, i) < 0)
			continue;
		if (snd_interval_empty(&range))
			continue;

		if (range.min < range_union.min) {
			range_union.min = range.min;
			range_union.openmin = 1;
		}
		if (range.min == range_union.min && !range.openmin)
			range_union.openmin = 0;
		if (range.max > range_union.max) {
			range_union.max = range.max;
			range_union.openmax = 1;
		}
		if (range.max == range_union.max && !range.openmax)
			range_union.openmax = 0;
	}
	return snd_interval_refine(i, &range_union);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_interval_ranges);

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static int snd_interval_step(struct snd_interval *i, unsigned int step)
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{
	unsigned int n;
	int changed = 0;
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	n = i->min % step;
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	if (n != 0 || i->openmin) {
		i->min += step - n;
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		i->openmin = 0;
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		changed = 1;
	}
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	n = i->max % step;
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	if (n != 0 || i->openmax) {
		i->max -= n;
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		i->openmax = 0;
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		changed = 1;
	}
	if (snd_interval_checkempty(i)) {
		i->empty = 1;
		return -EINVAL;
	}
	return changed;
}

/* Info constraints helpers */

/**
 * snd_pcm_hw_rule_add - add the hw-constraint rule
 * @runtime: the pcm runtime instance
 * @cond: condition bits
 * @var: the variable to evaluate
 * @func: the evaluation function
 * @private: the private data pointer passed to function
 * @dep: the dependent variables
 *
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 * Return: Zero if successful, or a negative error code on failure.
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 */
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int snd_pcm_hw_rule_add(struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime, unsigned int cond,
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			int var,
			snd_pcm_hw_rule_func_t func, void *private,
			int dep, ...)
{
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	struct snd_pcm_hw_constraints *constrs = &runtime->hw_constraints;
	struct snd_pcm_hw_rule *c;
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	unsigned int k;
	va_list args;
	va_start(args, dep);
	if (constrs->rules_num >= constrs->rules_all) {
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		struct snd_pcm_hw_rule *new;
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		unsigned int new_rules = constrs->rules_all + 16;
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		new = krealloc_array(constrs->rules, new_rules,
				     sizeof(*c), GFP_KERNEL);
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		if (!new) {
			va_end(args);
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			return -ENOMEM;
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		}
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		constrs->rules = new;
		constrs->rules_all = new_rules;
	}
	c = &constrs->rules[constrs->rules_num];
	c->cond = cond;
	c->func = func;
	c->var = var;
	c->private = private;
	k = 0;
	while (1) {
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		if (snd_BUG_ON(k >= ARRAY_SIZE(c->deps))) {
			va_end(args);
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			return -EINVAL;
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		}
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		c->deps[k++] = dep;
		if (dep < 0)
			break;
		dep = va_arg(args, int);
	}
	constrs->rules_num++;
	va_end(args);
	return 0;
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}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_pcm_hw_rule_add);

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/**
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 * snd_pcm_hw_constraint_mask - apply the given bitmap mask constraint
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 * @runtime: PCM runtime instance
 * @var: hw_params variable to apply the mask
 * @mask: the bitmap mask
 *
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 * Apply the constraint of the given bitmap mask to a 32-bit mask parameter.
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 *
 * Return: Zero if successful, or a negative error code on failure.
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 */
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int snd_pcm_hw_constraint_mask(struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime, snd_pcm_hw_param_t var,
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			       u_int32_t mask)
{
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	struct snd_pcm_hw_constraints *constrs = &runtime->hw_constraints;
	struct snd_mask *maskp = constrs_mask(constrs, var);
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	*maskp->bits &= mask;
	memset(maskp->bits + 1, 0, (SNDRV_MASK_MAX-32) / 8); /* clear rest */
	if (*maskp->bits == 0)
		return -EINVAL;
	return 0;
}

/**
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 * snd_pcm_hw_constraint_mask64 - apply the given bitmap mask constraint
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 * @runtime: PCM runtime instance
 * @var: hw_params variable to apply the mask
 * @mask: the 64bit bitmap mask
 *
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 * Apply the constraint of the given bitmap mask to a 64-bit mask parameter.
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 *
 * Return: Zero if successful, or a negative error code on failure.
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 */
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int snd_pcm_hw_constraint_mask64(struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime, snd_pcm_hw_param_t var,
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				 u_int64_t mask)
{
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	struct snd_pcm_hw_constraints *constrs = &runtime->hw_constraints;
	struct snd_mask *maskp = constrs_mask(constrs, var);
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	maskp->bits[0] &= (u_int32_t)mask;
	maskp->bits[1] &= (u_int32_t)(mask >> 32);
	memset(maskp->bits + 2, 0, (SNDRV_MASK_MAX-64) / 8); /* clear rest */
	if (! maskp->bits[0] && ! maskp->bits[1])
		return -EINVAL;
	return 0;
}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(snd_pcm_hw_constraint_mask64);
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/**
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 * snd_pcm_hw_constraint_integer - apply an integer constraint to an interval
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 * @runtime: PCM runtime instance
 * @var: hw_params variable to apply the integer constraint
 *
 * Apply the constraint of integer to an interval parameter.
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 *
 * Return: Positive if the value is changed, zero if it's not changed, or a
 * negative error code.
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 */
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int snd_pcm_hw_constraint_integer(struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime, snd_pcm_hw_param_t var)
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{
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	struct snd_pcm_hw_constraints *constrs = &runtime->hw_constraints;