inode.c 100 KB
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/*
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 *  linux/fs/ext4/inode.c
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 *
 * Copyright (C) 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
 * Remy Card (card@masi.ibp.fr)
 * Laboratoire MASI - Institut Blaise Pascal
 * Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI)
 *
 *  from
 *
 *  linux/fs/minix/inode.c
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1991, 1992  Linus Torvalds
 *
 *  Goal-directed block allocation by Stephen Tweedie
 *	(sct@redhat.com), 1993, 1998
 *  Big-endian to little-endian byte-swapping/bitmaps by
 *        David S. Miller (davem@caip.rutgers.edu), 1995
 *  64-bit file support on 64-bit platforms by Jakub Jelinek
 *	(jj@sunsite.ms.mff.cuni.cz)
 *
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 *  Assorted race fixes, rewrite of ext4_get_block() by Al Viro, 2000
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 */

#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/time.h>
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#include <linux/ext4_jbd2.h>
#include <linux/jbd2.h>
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#include <linux/highuid.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/quotaops.h>
#include <linux/string.h>
#include <linux/buffer_head.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
#include <linux/mpage.h>
#include <linux/uio.h>
#include <linux/bio.h>
#include "xattr.h"
#include "acl.h"

/*
 * Test whether an inode is a fast symlink.
 */
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static int ext4_inode_is_fast_symlink(struct inode *inode)
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{
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	int ea_blocks = EXT4_I(inode)->i_file_acl ?
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		(inode->i_sb->s_blocksize >> 9) : 0;

	return (S_ISLNK(inode->i_mode) && inode->i_blocks - ea_blocks == 0);
}

/*
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 * The ext4 forget function must perform a revoke if we are freeing data
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 * which has been journaled.  Metadata (eg. indirect blocks) must be
 * revoked in all cases.
 *
 * "bh" may be NULL: a metadata block may have been freed from memory
 * but there may still be a record of it in the journal, and that record
 * still needs to be revoked.
 */
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int ext4_forget(handle_t *handle, int is_metadata, struct inode *inode,
			struct buffer_head *bh, ext4_fsblk_t blocknr)
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{
	int err;

	might_sleep();

	BUFFER_TRACE(bh, "enter");

	jbd_debug(4, "forgetting bh %p: is_metadata = %d, mode %o, "
		  "data mode %lx\n",
		  bh, is_metadata, inode->i_mode,
		  test_opt(inode->i_sb, DATA_FLAGS));

	/* Never use the revoke function if we are doing full data
	 * journaling: there is no need to, and a V1 superblock won't
	 * support it.  Otherwise, only skip the revoke on un-journaled
	 * data blocks. */

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	if (test_opt(inode->i_sb, DATA_FLAGS) == EXT4_MOUNT_JOURNAL_DATA ||
	    (!is_metadata && !ext4_should_journal_data(inode))) {
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		if (bh) {
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			BUFFER_TRACE(bh, "call jbd2_journal_forget");
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			return ext4_journal_forget(handle, bh);
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		}
		return 0;
	}

	/*
	 * data!=journal && (is_metadata || should_journal_data(inode))
	 */
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	BUFFER_TRACE(bh, "call ext4_journal_revoke");
	err = ext4_journal_revoke(handle, blocknr, bh);
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	if (err)
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		ext4_abort(inode->i_sb, __FUNCTION__,
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			   "error %d when attempting revoke", err);
	BUFFER_TRACE(bh, "exit");
	return err;
}

/*
 * Work out how many blocks we need to proceed with the next chunk of a
 * truncate transaction.
 */
static unsigned long blocks_for_truncate(struct inode *inode)
{
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	ext4_lblk_t needed;
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	needed = inode->i_blocks >> (inode->i_sb->s_blocksize_bits - 9);

	/* Give ourselves just enough room to cope with inodes in which
	 * i_blocks is corrupt: we've seen disk corruptions in the past
	 * which resulted in random data in an inode which looked enough
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	 * like a regular file for ext4 to try to delete it.  Things
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	 * will go a bit crazy if that happens, but at least we should
	 * try not to panic the whole kernel. */
	if (needed < 2)
		needed = 2;

	/* But we need to bound the transaction so we don't overflow the
	 * journal. */
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	if (needed > EXT4_MAX_TRANS_DATA)
		needed = EXT4_MAX_TRANS_DATA;
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	return EXT4_DATA_TRANS_BLOCKS(inode->i_sb) + needed;
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}

/*
 * Truncate transactions can be complex and absolutely huge.  So we need to
 * be able to restart the transaction at a conventient checkpoint to make
 * sure we don't overflow the journal.
 *
 * start_transaction gets us a new handle for a truncate transaction,
 * and extend_transaction tries to extend the existing one a bit.  If
 * extend fails, we need to propagate the failure up and restart the
 * transaction in the top-level truncate loop. --sct
 */
static handle_t *start_transaction(struct inode *inode)
{
	handle_t *result;

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	result = ext4_journal_start(inode, blocks_for_truncate(inode));
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	if (!IS_ERR(result))
		return result;

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	ext4_std_error(inode->i_sb, PTR_ERR(result));
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	return result;
}

/*
 * Try to extend this transaction for the purposes of truncation.
 *
 * Returns 0 if we managed to create more room.  If we can't create more
 * room, and the transaction must be restarted we return 1.
 */
static int try_to_extend_transaction(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode)
{
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	if (handle->h_buffer_credits > EXT4_RESERVE_TRANS_BLOCKS)
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		return 0;
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	if (!ext4_journal_extend(handle, blocks_for_truncate(inode)))
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		return 0;
	return 1;
}

/*
 * Restart the transaction associated with *handle.  This does a commit,
 * so before we call here everything must be consistently dirtied against
 * this transaction.
 */
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static int ext4_journal_test_restart(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode)
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{
	jbd_debug(2, "restarting handle %p\n", handle);
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	return ext4_journal_restart(handle, blocks_for_truncate(inode));
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}

/*
 * Called at the last iput() if i_nlink is zero.
 */
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void ext4_delete_inode (struct inode * inode)
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{
	handle_t *handle;

	truncate_inode_pages(&inode->i_data, 0);

	if (is_bad_inode(inode))
		goto no_delete;

	handle = start_transaction(inode);
	if (IS_ERR(handle)) {
		/*
		 * If we're going to skip the normal cleanup, we still need to
		 * make sure that the in-core orphan linked list is properly
		 * cleaned up.
		 */
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		ext4_orphan_del(NULL, inode);
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		goto no_delete;
	}

	if (IS_SYNC(inode))
		handle->h_sync = 1;
	inode->i_size = 0;
	if (inode->i_blocks)
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		ext4_truncate(inode);
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	/*
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	 * Kill off the orphan record which ext4_truncate created.
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	 * AKPM: I think this can be inside the above `if'.
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	 * Note that ext4_orphan_del() has to be able to cope with the
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	 * deletion of a non-existent orphan - this is because we don't
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	 * know if ext4_truncate() actually created an orphan record.
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	 * (Well, we could do this if we need to, but heck - it works)
	 */
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	ext4_orphan_del(handle, inode);
	EXT4_I(inode)->i_dtime	= get_seconds();
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	/*
	 * One subtle ordering requirement: if anything has gone wrong
	 * (transaction abort, IO errors, whatever), then we can still
	 * do these next steps (the fs will already have been marked as
	 * having errors), but we can't free the inode if the mark_dirty
	 * fails.
	 */
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	if (ext4_mark_inode_dirty(handle, inode))
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		/* If that failed, just do the required in-core inode clear. */
		clear_inode(inode);
	else
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		ext4_free_inode(handle, inode);
	ext4_journal_stop(handle);
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	return;
no_delete:
	clear_inode(inode);	/* We must guarantee clearing of inode... */
}

typedef struct {
	__le32	*p;
	__le32	key;
	struct buffer_head *bh;
} Indirect;

static inline void add_chain(Indirect *p, struct buffer_head *bh, __le32 *v)
{
	p->key = *(p->p = v);
	p->bh = bh;
}

/**
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 *	ext4_block_to_path - parse the block number into array of offsets
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 *	@inode: inode in question (we are only interested in its superblock)
 *	@i_block: block number to be parsed
 *	@offsets: array to store the offsets in
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 *	@boundary: set this non-zero if the referred-to block is likely to be
 *	       followed (on disk) by an indirect block.
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 *
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 *	To store the locations of file's data ext4 uses a data structure common
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 *	for UNIX filesystems - tree of pointers anchored in the inode, with
 *	data blocks at leaves and indirect blocks in intermediate nodes.
 *	This function translates the block number into path in that tree -
 *	return value is the path length and @offsets[n] is the offset of
 *	pointer to (n+1)th node in the nth one. If @block is out of range
 *	(negative or too large) warning is printed and zero returned.
 *
 *	Note: function doesn't find node addresses, so no IO is needed. All
 *	we need to know is the capacity of indirect blocks (taken from the
 *	inode->i_sb).
 */

/*
 * Portability note: the last comparison (check that we fit into triple
 * indirect block) is spelled differently, because otherwise on an
 * architecture with 32-bit longs and 8Kb pages we might get into trouble
 * if our filesystem had 8Kb blocks. We might use long long, but that would
 * kill us on x86. Oh, well, at least the sign propagation does not matter -
 * i_block would have to be negative in the very beginning, so we would not
 * get there at all.
 */

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static int ext4_block_to_path(struct inode *inode,
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			ext4_lblk_t i_block,
			ext4_lblk_t offsets[4], int *boundary)
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{
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	int ptrs = EXT4_ADDR_PER_BLOCK(inode->i_sb);
	int ptrs_bits = EXT4_ADDR_PER_BLOCK_BITS(inode->i_sb);
	const long direct_blocks = EXT4_NDIR_BLOCKS,
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		indirect_blocks = ptrs,
		double_blocks = (1 << (ptrs_bits * 2));
	int n = 0;
	int final = 0;

	if (i_block < 0) {
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		ext4_warning (inode->i_sb, "ext4_block_to_path", "block < 0");
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	} else if (i_block < direct_blocks) {
		offsets[n++] = i_block;
		final = direct_blocks;
	} else if ( (i_block -= direct_blocks) < indirect_blocks) {
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		offsets[n++] = EXT4_IND_BLOCK;
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		offsets[n++] = i_block;
		final = ptrs;
	} else if ((i_block -= indirect_blocks) < double_blocks) {
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		offsets[n++] = EXT4_DIND_BLOCK;
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		offsets[n++] = i_block >> ptrs_bits;
		offsets[n++] = i_block & (ptrs - 1);
		final = ptrs;
	} else if (((i_block -= double_blocks) >> (ptrs_bits * 2)) < ptrs) {
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		offsets[n++] = EXT4_TIND_BLOCK;
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		offsets[n++] = i_block >> (ptrs_bits * 2);
		offsets[n++] = (i_block >> ptrs_bits) & (ptrs - 1);
		offsets[n++] = i_block & (ptrs - 1);
		final = ptrs;
	} else {
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		ext4_warning(inode->i_sb, "ext4_block_to_path",
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				"block %lu > max",
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				i_block + direct_blocks +
				indirect_blocks + double_blocks);
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	}
	if (boundary)
		*boundary = final - 1 - (i_block & (ptrs - 1));
	return n;
}

/**
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 *	ext4_get_branch - read the chain of indirect blocks leading to data
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 *	@inode: inode in question
 *	@depth: depth of the chain (1 - direct pointer, etc.)
 *	@offsets: offsets of pointers in inode/indirect blocks
 *	@chain: place to store the result
 *	@err: here we store the error value
 *
 *	Function fills the array of triples <key, p, bh> and returns %NULL
 *	if everything went OK or the pointer to the last filled triple
 *	(incomplete one) otherwise. Upon the return chain[i].key contains
 *	the number of (i+1)-th block in the chain (as it is stored in memory,
 *	i.e. little-endian 32-bit), chain[i].p contains the address of that
 *	number (it points into struct inode for i==0 and into the bh->b_data
 *	for i>0) and chain[i].bh points to the buffer_head of i-th indirect
 *	block for i>0 and NULL for i==0. In other words, it holds the block
 *	numbers of the chain, addresses they were taken from (and where we can
 *	verify that chain did not change) and buffer_heads hosting these
 *	numbers.
 *
 *	Function stops when it stumbles upon zero pointer (absent block)
 *		(pointer to last triple returned, *@err == 0)
 *	or when it gets an IO error reading an indirect block
 *		(ditto, *@err == -EIO)
 *	or when it reads all @depth-1 indirect blocks successfully and finds
 *	the whole chain, all way to the data (returns %NULL, *err == 0).
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 *
 *      Need to be called with
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 *      down_read(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem)
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 */
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static Indirect *ext4_get_branch(struct inode *inode, int depth,
				 ext4_lblk_t  *offsets,
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				 Indirect chain[4], int *err)
{
	struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;
	Indirect *p = chain;
	struct buffer_head *bh;

	*err = 0;
	/* i_data is not going away, no lock needed */
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	add_chain (chain, NULL, EXT4_I(inode)->i_data + *offsets);
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	if (!p->key)
		goto no_block;
	while (--depth) {
		bh = sb_bread(sb, le32_to_cpu(p->key));
		if (!bh)
			goto failure;
		add_chain(++p, bh, (__le32*)bh->b_data + *++offsets);
		/* Reader: end */
		if (!p->key)
			goto no_block;
	}
	return NULL;

failure:
	*err = -EIO;
no_block:
	return p;
}

/**
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 *	ext4_find_near - find a place for allocation with sufficient locality
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 *	@inode: owner
 *	@ind: descriptor of indirect block.
 *
 *	This function returns the prefered place for block allocation.
 *	It is used when heuristic for sequential allocation fails.
 *	Rules are:
 *	  + if there is a block to the left of our position - allocate near it.
 *	  + if pointer will live in indirect block - allocate near that block.
 *	  + if pointer will live in inode - allocate in the same
 *	    cylinder group.
 *
 * In the latter case we colour the starting block by the callers PID to
 * prevent it from clashing with concurrent allocations for a different inode
 * in the same block group.   The PID is used here so that functionally related
 * files will be close-by on-disk.
 *
 *	Caller must make sure that @ind is valid and will stay that way.
 */
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static ext4_fsblk_t ext4_find_near(struct inode *inode, Indirect *ind)
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{
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	struct ext4_inode_info *ei = EXT4_I(inode);
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	__le32 *start = ind->bh ? (__le32*) ind->bh->b_data : ei->i_data;
	__le32 *p;
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	ext4_fsblk_t bg_start;
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	ext4_fsblk_t last_block;
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	ext4_grpblk_t colour;
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	/* Try to find previous block */
	for (p = ind->p - 1; p >= start; p--) {
		if (*p)
			return le32_to_cpu(*p);
	}

	/* No such thing, so let's try location of indirect block */
	if (ind->bh)
		return ind->bh->b_blocknr;

	/*
	 * It is going to be referred to from the inode itself? OK, just put it
	 * into the same cylinder group then.
	 */
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	bg_start = ext4_group_first_block_no(inode->i_sb, ei->i_block_group);
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	last_block = ext4_blocks_count(EXT4_SB(inode->i_sb)->s_es) - 1;

	if (bg_start + EXT4_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(inode->i_sb) <= last_block)
		colour = (current->pid % 16) *
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			(EXT4_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(inode->i_sb) / 16);
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	else
		colour = (current->pid % 16) * ((last_block - bg_start) / 16);
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	return bg_start + colour;
}

/**
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 *	ext4_find_goal - find a prefered place for allocation.
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 *	@inode: owner
 *	@block:  block we want
 *	@partial: pointer to the last triple within a chain
 *
 *	Normally this function find the prefered place for block allocation,
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 *	returns it.
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 */
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static ext4_fsblk_t ext4_find_goal(struct inode *inode, ext4_lblk_t block,
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		Indirect *partial)
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{
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	struct ext4_block_alloc_info *block_i;
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	block_i =  EXT4_I(inode)->i_block_alloc_info;
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	/*
	 * try the heuristic for sequential allocation,
	 * failing that at least try to get decent locality.
	 */
	if (block_i && (block == block_i->last_alloc_logical_block + 1)
		&& (block_i->last_alloc_physical_block != 0)) {
		return block_i->last_alloc_physical_block + 1;
	}

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	return ext4_find_near(inode, partial);
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}

/**
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 *	ext4_blks_to_allocate: Look up the block map and count the number
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 *	of direct blocks need to be allocated for the given branch.
 *
 *	@branch: chain of indirect blocks
 *	@k: number of blocks need for indirect blocks
 *	@blks: number of data blocks to be mapped.
 *	@blocks_to_boundary:  the offset in the indirect block
 *
 *	return the total number of blocks to be allocate, including the
 *	direct and indirect blocks.
 */
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static int ext4_blks_to_allocate(Indirect *branch, int k, unsigned long blks,
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		int blocks_to_boundary)
{
	unsigned long count = 0;

	/*
	 * Simple case, [t,d]Indirect block(s) has not allocated yet
	 * then it's clear blocks on that path have not allocated
	 */
	if (k > 0) {
		/* right now we don't handle cross boundary allocation */
		if (blks < blocks_to_boundary + 1)
			count += blks;
		else
			count += blocks_to_boundary + 1;
		return count;
	}

	count++;
	while (count < blks && count <= blocks_to_boundary &&
		le32_to_cpu(*(branch[0].p + count)) == 0) {
		count++;
	}
	return count;
}

/**
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 *	ext4_alloc_blocks: multiple allocate blocks needed for a branch
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 *	@indirect_blks: the number of blocks need to allocate for indirect
 *			blocks
 *
 *	@new_blocks: on return it will store the new block numbers for
 *	the indirect blocks(if needed) and the first direct block,
 *	@blks:	on return it will store the total number of allocated
 *		direct blocks
 */
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static int ext4_alloc_blocks(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
			ext4_fsblk_t goal, int indirect_blks, int blks,
			ext4_fsblk_t new_blocks[4], int *err)
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{
	int target, i;
	unsigned long count = 0;
	int index = 0;
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	ext4_fsblk_t current_block = 0;
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	int ret = 0;

	/*
	 * Here we try to allocate the requested multiple blocks at once,
	 * on a best-effort basis.
	 * To build a branch, we should allocate blocks for
	 * the indirect blocks(if not allocated yet), and at least
	 * the first direct block of this branch.  That's the
	 * minimum number of blocks need to allocate(required)
	 */
	target = blks + indirect_blks;

	while (1) {
		count = target;
		/* allocating blocks for indirect blocks and direct blocks */
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		current_block = ext4_new_blocks(handle,inode,goal,&count,err);
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		if (*err)
			goto failed_out;

		target -= count;
		/* allocate blocks for indirect blocks */
		while (index < indirect_blks && count) {
			new_blocks[index++] = current_block++;
			count--;
		}

		if (count > 0)
			break;
	}

	/* save the new block number for the first direct block */
	new_blocks[index] = current_block;

	/* total number of blocks allocated for direct blocks */
	ret = count;
	*err = 0;
	return ret;
failed_out:
	for (i = 0; i <index; i++)
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		ext4_free_blocks(handle, inode, new_blocks[i], 1, 0);
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	return ret;
}

/**
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 *	@inode: owner
 *	@indirect_blks: number of allocated indirect blocks
 *	@blks: number of allocated direct blocks
 *	@offsets: offsets (in the blocks) to store the pointers to next.
 *	@branch: place to store the chain in.
 *
 *	This function allocates blocks, zeroes out all but the last one,
 *	links them into chain and (if we are synchronous) writes them to disk.
 *	In other words, it prepares a branch that can be spliced onto the
 *	inode. It stores the information about that chain in the branch[], in
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 *	the same format as ext4_get_branch() would do. We are calling it after
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 *	we had read the existing part of chain and partial points to the last
 *	triple of that (one with zero ->key). Upon the exit we have the same
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 *	picture as after the successful ext4_get_block(), except that in one
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 *	place chain is disconnected - *branch->p is still zero (we did not
 *	set the last link), but branch->key contains the number that should
 *	be placed into *branch->p to fill that gap.
 *
 *	If allocation fails we free all blocks we've allocated (and forget
 *	their buffer_heads) and return the error value the from failed
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 *	as described above and return 0.
 */
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static int ext4_alloc_branch(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
			int indirect_blks, int *blks, ext4_fsblk_t goal,
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			ext4_lblk_t *offsets, Indirect *branch)
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{
	int blocksize = inode->i_sb->s_blocksize;
	int i, n = 0;
	int err = 0;
	struct buffer_head *bh;
	int num;
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	ext4_fsblk_t new_blocks[4];
	ext4_fsblk_t current_block;
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	num = ext4_alloc_blocks(handle, inode, goal, indirect_blks,
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				*blks, new_blocks, &err);
	if (err)
		return err;

	branch[0].key = cpu_to_le32(new_blocks[0]);
	/*
	 * metadata blocks and data blocks are allocated.
	 */
	for (n = 1; n <= indirect_blks;  n++) {
		/*
		 * Get buffer_head for parent block, zero it out
		 * and set the pointer to new one, then send
		 * parent to disk.
		 */
		bh = sb_getblk(inode->i_sb, new_blocks[n-1]);
		branch[n].bh = bh;
		lock_buffer(bh);
		BUFFER_TRACE(bh, "call get_create_access");
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		err = ext4_journal_get_create_access(handle, bh);
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		if (err) {
			unlock_buffer(bh);
			brelse(bh);
			goto failed;
		}

		memset(bh->b_data, 0, blocksize);
		branch[n].p = (__le32 *) bh->b_data + offsets[n];
		branch[n].key = cpu_to_le32(new_blocks[n]);
		*branch[n].p = branch[n].key;
		if ( n == indirect_blks) {
			current_block = new_blocks[n];
			/*
			 * End of chain, update the last new metablock of
			 * the chain to point to the new allocated
			 * data blocks numbers
			 */
			for (i=1; i < num; i++)
				*(branch[n].p + i) = cpu_to_le32(++current_block);
		}
		BUFFER_TRACE(bh, "marking uptodate");
		set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
		unlock_buffer(bh);

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		BUFFER_TRACE(bh, "call ext4_journal_dirty_metadata");
		err = ext4_journal_dirty_metadata(handle, bh);
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		if (err)
			goto failed;
	}
	*blks = num;
	return err;
failed:
	/* Allocation failed, free what we already allocated */
	for (i = 1; i <= n ; i++) {
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		BUFFER_TRACE(branch[i].bh, "call jbd2_journal_forget");
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		ext4_journal_forget(handle, branch[i].bh);
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	}
	for (i = 0; i <indirect_blks; i++)
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		ext4_free_blocks(handle, inode, new_blocks[i], 1, 0);
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	ext4_free_blocks(handle, inode, new_blocks[i], num, 0);
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	return err;
}

/**
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 * @inode: owner
 * @block: (logical) number of block we are adding
 * @chain: chain of indirect blocks (with a missing link - see
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 *	ext4_alloc_branch)
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 * @where: location of missing link
 * @num:   number of indirect blocks we are adding
 * @blks:  number of direct blocks we are adding
 *
 * This function fills the missing link and does all housekeeping needed in
 * inode (->i_blocks, etc.). In case of success we end up with the full
 * chain to new block and return 0.
 */
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static int ext4_splice_branch(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
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			ext4_lblk_t block, Indirect *where, int num, int blks)
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{
	int i;
	int err = 0;
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	struct ext4_block_alloc_info *block_i;
	ext4_fsblk_t current_block;
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	block_i = EXT4_I(inode)->i_block_alloc_info;
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	/*
	 * If we're splicing into a [td]indirect block (as opposed to the
	 * inode) then we need to get write access to the [td]indirect block
	 * before the splice.
	 */
	if (where->bh) {
		BUFFER_TRACE(where->bh, "get_write_access");
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		err = ext4_journal_get_write_access(handle, where->bh);
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		if (err)
			goto err_out;
	}
	/* That's it */

	*where->p = where->key;

	/*
	 * Update the host buffer_head or inode to point to more just allocated
	 * direct blocks blocks
	 */
	if (num == 0 && blks > 1) {
		current_block = le32_to_cpu(where->key) + 1;
		for (i = 1; i < blks; i++)
			*(where->p + i ) = cpu_to_le32(current_block++);
	}

	/*
	 * update the most recently allocated logical & physical block
	 * in i_block_alloc_info, to assist find the proper goal block for next
	 * allocation
	 */
	if (block_i) {
		block_i->last_alloc_logical_block = block + blks - 1;
		block_i->last_alloc_physical_block =
				le32_to_cpu(where[num].key) + blks - 1;
	}

	/* We are done with atomic stuff, now do the rest of housekeeping */

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	inode->i_ctime = ext4_current_time(inode);
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	ext4_mark_inode_dirty(handle, inode);
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	/* had we spliced it onto indirect block? */
	if (where->bh) {
		/*
		 * If we spliced it onto an indirect block, we haven't
		 * altered the inode.  Note however that if it is being spliced
		 * onto an indirect block at the very end of the file (the
		 * file is growing) then we *will* alter the inode to reflect
		 * the new i_size.  But that is not done here - it is done in
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		 */
		jbd_debug(5, "splicing indirect only\n");
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		BUFFER_TRACE(where->bh, "call ext4_journal_dirty_metadata");
		err = ext4_journal_dirty_metadata(handle, where->bh);
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		if (err)
			goto err_out;
	} else {
		/*
		 * OK, we spliced it into the inode itself on a direct block.
		 * Inode was dirtied above.
		 */
		jbd_debug(5, "splicing direct\n");
	}
	return err;

err_out:
	for (i = 1; i <= num; i++) {
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		BUFFER_TRACE(where[i].bh, "call jbd2_journal_forget");
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		ext4_journal_forget(handle, where[i].bh);
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		ext4_free_blocks(handle, inode,
					le32_to_cpu(where[i-1].key), 1, 0);
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	}
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	ext4_free_blocks(handle, inode, le32_to_cpu(where[num].key), blks, 0);
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	return err;
}

/*
 * Allocation strategy is simple: if we have to allocate something, we will
 * have to go the whole way to leaf. So let's do it before attaching anything
 * to tree, set linkage between the newborn blocks, write them if sync is
 * required, recheck the path, free and repeat if check fails, otherwise
 * set the last missing link (that will protect us from any truncate-generated
 * removals - all blocks on the path are immune now) and possibly force the
 * write on the parent block.
 * That has a nice additional property: no special recovery from the failed
 * allocations is needed - we simply release blocks and do not touch anything
 * reachable from inode.
 *
 * `handle' can be NULL if create == 0.
 *
 * return > 0, # of blocks mapped or allocated.
 * return = 0, if plain lookup failed.
 * return < 0, error case.
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 *
 *
 * Need to be called with
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 * down_read(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem) if not allocating file system block
 * (ie, create is zero). Otherwise down_write(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem)
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 */
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int ext4_get_blocks_handle(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
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		ext4_lblk_t iblock, unsigned long maxblocks,
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		struct buffer_head *bh_result,
		int create, int extend_disksize)
{
	int err = -EIO;
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	ext4_lblk_t offsets[4];
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	Indirect chain[4];
	Indirect *partial;
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	ext4_fsblk_t goal;
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	int indirect_blks;
	int blocks_to_boundary = 0;
	int depth;
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	struct ext4_inode_info *ei = EXT4_I(inode);
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	int count = 0;
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	ext4_fsblk_t first_block = 0;
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	J_ASSERT(!(EXT4_I(inode)->i_flags & EXT4_EXTENTS_FL));
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	J_ASSERT(handle != NULL || create == 0);
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	depth = ext4_block_to_path(inode, iblock, offsets,
					&blocks_to_boundary);
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	if (depth == 0)
		goto out;

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	partial = ext4_get_branch(inode, depth, offsets, chain, &err);
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	/* Simplest case - block found, no allocation needed */
	if (!partial) {
		first_block = le32_to_cpu(chain[depth - 1].key);
		clear_buffer_new(bh_result);
		count++;
		/*map more blocks*/
		while (count < maxblocks && count <= blocks_to_boundary) {
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			blk = le32_to_cpu(*(chain[depth-1].p + count));

			if (blk == first_block + count)
				count++;
			else
				break;
		}
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		goto got_it;
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	}

	/* Next simple case - plain lookup or failed read of indirect block */
	if (!create || err == -EIO)
		goto cleanup;

	/*
	 * Okay, we need to do block allocation.  Lazily initialize the block
	 * allocation info here if necessary
	*/
	if (S_ISREG(inode->i_mode) && (!ei->i_block_alloc_info))
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		ext4_init_block_alloc_info(inode);
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	goal = ext4_find_goal(inode, iblock, partial);
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	/* the number of blocks need to allocate for [d,t]indirect blocks */
	indirect_blks = (chain + depth) - partial - 1;

	/*
	 * Next look up the indirect map to count the totoal number of
	 * direct blocks to allocate for this branch.
	 */
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	count = ext4_blks_to_allocate(partial, indirect_blks,
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					maxblocks, blocks_to_boundary);
	/*
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	 * Block out ext4_truncate while we alter the tree
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	 */
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	err = ext4_alloc_branch(handle, inode, indirect_blks, &count, goal,
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				offsets + (partial - chain), partial);

	/*
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	 * The ext4_splice_branch call will free and forget any buffers
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	 * on the new chain if there is a failure, but that risks using
	 * up transaction credits, especially for bitmaps where the
	 * credits cannot be returned.  Can we handle this somehow?  We
	 * may need to return -EAGAIN upwards in the worst case.  --sct
	 */
	if (!err)
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		err = ext4_splice_branch(handle, inode, iblock,
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					partial, indirect_blks, count);
	/*
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	 * i_disksize growing is protected by i_data_sem.  Don't forget to
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	 * protect it if you're about to implement concurrent
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	 * ext4_get_block() -bzzz
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	*/
	if (!err && extend_disksize && inode->i_size > ei->i_disksize)
		ei->i_disksize = inode->i_size;
	if (err)
		goto cleanup;

	set_buffer_new(bh_result);
got_it:
	map_bh(bh_result, inode->i_sb, le32_to_cpu(chain[depth-1].key));
	if (count > blocks_to_boundary)
		set_buffer_boundary(bh_result);
	err = count;
	/* Clean up and exit */
	partial = chain + depth - 1;	/* the whole chain */
cleanup:
	while (partial > chain) {
		BUFFER_TRACE(partial->bh, "call brelse");
		brelse(partial->bh);
		partial--;
	}
	BUFFER_TRACE(bh_result, "returned");
out:
	return err;
}

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/* Maximum number of blocks we map for direct IO at once. */
#define DIO_MAX_BLOCKS 4096
/*
 * Number of credits we need for writing DIO_MAX_BLOCKS:
 * We need sb + group descriptor + bitmap + inode -> 4
 * For B blocks with A block pointers per block we need:
 * 1 (triple ind.) + (B/A/A + 2) (doubly ind.) + (B/A + 2) (indirect).
 * If we plug in 4096 for B and 256 for A (for 1KB block size), we get 25.
 */
#define DIO_CREDITS 25
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int ext4_get_blocks_wrap(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode, sector_t block,
			unsigned long max_blocks, struct buffer_head *bh,
			int create, int extend_disksize)
{
	int retval;
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	/*
	 * Try to see if we can get  the block without requesting
	 * for new file system block.
	 */
	down_read((&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem));
	if (EXT4_I(inode)->i_flags & EXT4_EXTENTS_FL) {
		retval =  ext4_ext_get_blocks(handle, inode, block, max_blocks,
				bh, 0, 0);
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	} else {
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		retval = ext4_get_blocks_handle(handle,
				inode, block, max_blocks, bh, 0, 0);
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	}
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	up_read((&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem));
	if (!create || (retval > 0))
		return retval;

	/*
	 * We need to allocate new blocks which will result
	 * in i_data update
	 */
	down_write((&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem));
	/*
	 * We need to check for EXT4 here because migrate
	 * could have changed the inode type in between
	 */
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	if (EXT4_I(inode)->i_flags & EXT4_EXTENTS_FL) {
		retval =  ext4_ext_get_blocks(handle, inode, block, max_blocks,
				bh, create, extend_disksize);
	} else {
		retval = ext4_get_blocks_handle(handle, inode, block,
				max_blocks, bh, create, extend_disksize);
	}
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	up_write((&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem));
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	return retval;
}

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static int ext4_get_block(struct inode *inode, sector_t iblock,
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			struct buffer_head *bh_result, int create)
{
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	handle_t *handle = ext4_journal_current_handle();
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	int ret = 0, started = 0;
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	unsigned max_blocks = bh_result->b_size >> inode->i_blkbits;

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	if (create && !handle) {
		/* Direct IO write... */
		if (max_blocks > DIO_MAX_BLOCKS)
			max_blocks = DIO_MAX_BLOCKS;
		handle = ext4_journal_start(inode, DIO_CREDITS +
			      2 * EXT4_QUOTA_TRANS_BLOCKS(inode->i_sb));
		if (IS_ERR(handle)) {
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			ret = PTR_ERR(handle);
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			goto out;
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		}
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		started = 1;
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	}

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	ret = ext4_get_blocks_wrap(handle, inode, iblock,
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					max_blocks, bh_result, create, 0);
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	if (ret > 0) {
		bh_result->b_size = (ret << inode->i_blkbits);
		ret = 0;
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	}
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	if (started)
		ext4_journal_stop(handle);
out:
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	return ret;
}

/*
 * `handle' can be NULL if create is zero
 */
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struct buffer_head *ext4_getblk(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
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				ext4_lblk_t block, int create, int *errp)
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{
	struct buffer_head dummy;
	int fatal = 0, err;

	J_ASSERT(handle != NULL || create == 0);

	dummy.b_state = 0;
	dummy.b_blocknr = -1000;
	buffer_trace_init(&dummy.b_history);
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	err = ext4_get_blocks_wrap(handle, inode, block, 1,
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					&dummy, create, 1);
	/*
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